Archives

  • 2018-07
  • 2018-10
  • 2018-11
  • 2019-04
  • 2019-05
  • 2019-06
  • 2019-07
  • 2019-08
  • 2019-09
  • 2019-10
  • 2019-11
  • 2019-12
  • 2020-01
  • 2020-02
  • 2020-03
  • 2020-04
  • 2020-05
  • 2020-06
  • 2020-07
  • 2020-08
  • 2020-09
  • 2020-10
  • 2020-11
  • 2020-12
  • 2021-01
  • 2021-02
  • 2021-03
  • 2021-04
  • 2021-05
  • 2021-06
  • 2021-07
  • 2021-08
  • 2021-09
  • 2021-10
  • 2021-11
  • 2021-12
  • 2022-01
  • 2022-02
  • 2022-03
  • 2022-04
  • 2022-05
  • 2022-06
  • 2022-07
  • 2022-08
  • 2022-09
  • 2022-10
  • 2022-11
  • 2022-12
  • 2023-01
  • 2023-02
  • 2023-03
  • 2023-04
  • 2023-05
  • 2023-06
  • 2023-08
  • 2023-09
  • 2023-10
  • 2023-11
  • 2023-12
  • 2024-01
  • 2024-02
  • br Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives Herein we

    2024-02-09


    Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives Herein, we have highlighted our current understanding of the role of the LKB1-AMPK pathway and its related kinases in β cell biology. β cell-specific genetic models have been particularly useful in delineating precise roles for individual family members in key β cell functions, from GSIS to mass regulation. That the highly related SIK1 and SIK2 appear to have distinct targets at different phases of the secretion process points to specificity and diversity in highly related kinases of the AMPK family and underlines the importance of pursuing each independently. Given the emerging concept that human β cell biology is significantly different from that of the rodent [73], future work exploring the roles of the AMPK family in the human β cell will be an important next step (see Outstanding Questions).
    Introduction Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection [1]. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a diffuse Trimidox dysfunction caused by sepsis without obvious central nervous system (CNS) infection, and it is the most common type of brain dysfunction in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), with a morbidity rate of 9%–71% in sepsis [2]. Early diagnosis and treatment of SAE is of great significance in improving the prognosis and reducing the mortality rate of patients with sepsis. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is common in sepsis and SAE, maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis is crucial for cell survival and cellular energetic status. Mitochondrial biogenesis refers to the growth and division of existing mitochondria, which is a complex and multistep process [3]. A variety of nuclear and mitochondrial regulatory factors participate in this process, among which peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is the major regulatory factor that regulates the expressions of nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1)and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) [[4], [5], [6]]. NRF-1, a vital transcription factor, facilitates the transcription of many nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes [7]. TFAM, a key activator essential for the replication, transcription, and stabilization of mtDNA [5,8]. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a neuromodulation factor with extensive and complex biological activities [9]. IL-6 transmits its signals through two distinct patterns termed classic signaling pathway and trans-signaling pathway. IL-6 plays an anti-inflammatory and regenerative role by forming IL-6/mIL-6R/gp130 complex in classical signaling pathway, while it acts as a proinflammatory cytokine by forming IL-6/sIL-6R/gp130 complex in trans-signaling pathway [[10], [11], [12]]. Recent studies have confirmed the divergent functions of IL-6. It is reported that IL-6 alleviates cerebral ischemic injury and plays a neuroprotective role in ischemic stroke by activating IL-6/IL-6R/STAT3 signaling pathway [13]. Moreover, IL-6 prevents cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) from NMDA-induced intracellular Ca2+ overload and cell death through gp130/JAK/STAT3, gp130/MAPK/ERK, and gp130/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, demonstrating a neuroprotective effect of IL-6 [14]. On the contrary, the various detrimental effects of IL-6 in the central nervous system (CNS) appear to depend on trans-signaling pathway solely, by using sgp130 to block IL-6 trans-signaling specifically [15]. IL-6 is not the only mediator increased in inflammation and in sepsis. Many mediators exist in sepsis, inflammation, cancer and other diseases. Exposed to diverse stimuli in vitro, cultured epithelial cells can produce TNF-α and other cytokines like IL-1 and IL-6, involving in inflammation [16]. Moreover, the level of IL-6 elevated significantly, while the level of TNF-α significantly decreased in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), compared with healthy controls [17]. Adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is highly conserved in all eukaryotes [18], is a master sensor of cellular energy status that regulates mitochondrial biogenesis, cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy [19,20]. AMPK is activated by the increase of adenosine monophosphate(AMP)/adenosine triphosphate(ATP)ratio and/or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)/ATP ratio under stress and oxidative stress conditions [[21], [22], [23], [24]].