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  • According to the WHO of the medications


    According to the WHO, 100% of the medications should be prescribed generically in the prescription. An alarmingly none of the prescriptions were written by their generic names. In contrast, the percentage of the drugs prescribed by the generic name in Ethiopia was found to be 98.7% and 42.7% in Nigeria [23,24]. There is a need to implement the policy of generic prescribing in India, as it reduces the cost of the drug, both to the patient and pharmacies. This will also facilitates to diminish unethical marketing strategies take up by some of the pharmaceutical industries.
    Introduction For effective therapeutic activity, suitable formulation approach, technology and dosage design for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is usually selected. The dosage form selected for the active pharmaceutical ingredient should provide suitable physical, chemical and metabolic stability, carriage to and required bioavailability at the target site. Solid formulations provide the easiest, commonest and most stable dosage design. Most solid dosage forms, such as metronidazole tablet (which is sparingly soluble in water) have poor and limited bioavailability, and require additional processes, excipients and formulation technique to ensure adequate drug release [13]. Procedures such as chemical modification of APIs (prodrug and salt formation), solubilization in co-solvent, particle size reduction, and solid dispersion formation or their different combinations have been used to enhance the bioavailability of solid dosage preparations [11,17,18]. Reduced particle size, improved surface area, improved wettability of the surface area and improved interparticulate spacing of drug have been shown to improve the water attraction and solubility of APIs. Addition of organic co-solvent dramatically changes the solubility of drugs [16]. Most co-solvents have buy KU-0059436 donor and/or acceptor groups, as well as small hydrocarbon region. Hydrophilic hydrogen group ensures wet miscibility, while the hydrocarbon region interferes with hydrogen bonding of water, and associates with the less hydrophilic portion of dispersed drug. The net effect is that the co-solvent disrupts water re-association, reduces water ability to squeeze out non polar hydrophobic compounds, forms a double layer with water surface, ensures wettability and advances solubilization [14]. Addition of polymer in the inter-space between dispersed drug particles reduces tendency of drug-drug re-association, improves solubility and ensures stability; and is called solid dispersion. Solid dispersion forces group of solid products consisting of different components, mainly a hydrophobic drug dispersed into solid lattice arrangement and structural order of a hydrophilic matrix (crystalline or amorphous) without chemical reaction or alteration (Martinez-Bustos et al., 2006) [15]. Complexing agents, surfactants and inert polymers matrices have been used to improve the physical nature, solubility and stability of the hydrophobic drug by modifying dosage thermodynamic and polymorphic properties [5]. Polymers such as starch and cellulose are used as matrices for solid dispersion, and also as filler, binder, disintegrant, and dissolution enhancer to aid dosage formulation and design, and to control drug bioavailability [9]. Cassava is the major source of tuber starch in the tropics, with two main species known: the sweet (M. aipi Phol) and bitter (M. utilissima Phol) cassava. The method adopted in processing the tubers, and the outcome, is related to the specie, tuber toxicity and quality, and the functional properties of the starch [1].
    Materials and methods
    Results The photomicrograph of Manihot ultilissima starch is presented in Plate 1, while Table 1 indicated the kneading formula of metronidazole with the different polymers employed in the tabletting optimization study. Fig. 1 showed the FT-IR spectrum of metronidazole and the FT-IR spectrum of metronidazole in 1:1 dispersion with Manihot ultilissima starch, respectively.