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  • The following factors are provided Al Homoud


    The following factors are provided (Al-Homoud, 2001) to be considered when selecting a method/tool for performance analysis: (1) accuracy, (2) sensitivity, (3) speed and cost of learning and use, (4) reproducibility, (5) ease of use and detail level, (6) availability of required date, (7) output quality, and (8) project stage. Key performance indices that are calculated to display the phalloidin performance of buildings are provided (Hsieh and Wu, 2012; Schlueter and Thesseling, 2009). These indices include: (1) average thermal transmittance, (2) ventilation heat losses, (3) solar heat gains, (4) internal heat gains, (5) lightning power, and (6) resulting heat demand. The USGSA (2008) provided possible results of energy analysis as follows: (1) assessment of the space and building energy performance for compliance with regulations and targets, (2) overall estimate of the energy use by space and for the building, as well as an overall estimate of the energy cost, (3) time-based simulation of the energy use of the building and time-based estimate of the utility costs, and (4) lifecycle estimate of the energy use and cost of the building.
    Literature survey on building performance and energy analysis The current trend in world energy use has raised serious concerns over supply difficulties, energy exhaustion, and heavy environmental impacts (Li and Yao, 2009). The International Energy Agency has stated that the total world energy consumption increased by over 46% from 4672 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) to 8677 Mtoe between 1971 and 2010 (Fig. 1). The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during this period increased by over 48% from 15,637 Mtoe to 30,326 Mtoe (Fig. 2). The global demand for energy is soaring with the current climate change and its consequential global warming. The global energy outlook shows that energy demand will continue to increase. Steemers and Yun (2009) stated that “global energy demand will increase by over one-third in the period of 2012 to 2035.” Similarly, British Petroleum (2013) predicts that global primary energy consumption will increase by 1.6% per annum from 2010 to 2030, which adds 36% to the global consumption by 2030. Although validating the authenticity of these statistics is outside the scope of the current study, the predictions are still alarming. More worrisome is the fact that the global CO2 emissions are directly proportional to the energy amount consumed. World population growth and economic development have been identified as factors that contribute to the increased global energy demand. The relationship among energy consumption, economic development, and population growth was analyzed (Li and Yao, 2009). The researchers opined that urbanization, globalization, improvement of living conditions in emerging regions, and the development of communication networks promote developed nations’ lifestyle and increase the energy requirements such that consumption patterns will exhaust fossil fuels and produce serious environmental impacts (Li and Yao, 2009). This scenario is confirmed in China, for example, where over 210 million rural inhabitants have migrated to urban areas between 2002 and 2012 (Fig. 3). The population of urban dwellers in the United States has been rising steadily from 79.4% in 2001 to over 82% in 2011 (Fig. 4). Similarly, the urban share of the United Kingdom׳s population has steadily increased only by a small fraction from 78.72% in 2001 to 79.64% in 2011 (Fig. 5). Meeting the requirements of these urban dwellers presents tremendous challenges and pressure on energy because considerable resources are required to invest in urban public utilities, infrastructure, and services, which include housing, water supply, roads, and bridges (Evins, 2013). Recent statistics released by the Department of Energy and Climate Change shows that the total overall primary energy consumption in the UK in primary energy terms (i.e., fuel obtained directly from natural sources) was 203Mtoe between 1970 and 2011 (Fig. 6). The domestic sector accounted for approximately 20% (38.8Mtoe) with majority of the energy spent on space heating. Notably, this figure is the lowest level of the UK primary energy consumption since 1984 (Schlueter and Thesseling, 2009). Improvements in the energy efficiency of electrical appliances and energy efficiency of buildings have been identified as factors that have helped the UK reduce its total domestic energy consumption.