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  • The Bergenia ciliata is ever green perennial herb

    2018-11-03

    The Bergenia ciliata is ever green perennial herb [9] found in Pakistan, India, Bhutan, Nepal and other countries, used in ayurvedic and traditional medicines to treat several diseases [10]. B. ciliata is used in Indian system of medicine for the treatment of pulmonary infections, fever, diarrhea and dissolution of the kidney stones [11]. This plant possesses the anti-tussive activity [12], anti-inflammatory, analgesic, diuretic property [13], antioxidant activity, DNA protection abilities [10] and has been shown to inhibit inflammation and boost immunity against bacterial infections. B. ciliata contains different phytochemical such as paashaanolactone [14], catechin, berginin and gallic acid [15]. Therefore, present study was conducted to identify the synthesis, characterization, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles using B. ciliata methanolic extract.
    Material and methods
    Result and discussion In current study, nanoparticles of B. ciliata crude extract were synthesized and evaluated for their bound phenolic and flavonoids contents, antioxidant potential, cytotoxic effect and antimicrobial activity. Synthesis of BCAgNPs through bio-green method was identified when the color was changed to brownish upon adding BC methanol extract in AgNO3 solutions. Collective oscillations of free electrons of reduced BCAgNPs were responsible for change in color of the reaction mixture [22]. Further, UV–visible spectrophotometric analysis of nanoparticles showed the maximum purchase 4-ethylphenyl sulfate of nanoparticles at a wavelength of 425 nm (Fig. 1). The nanoparticles, BCAgNPs formed were spherical in shape as observed in the field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (Fig. 2). Average size of nanoparticles was found 35 nm as shown in Fig. 2. FTIR is widely used for rapid and accurate identification of functional groups of the compounds [23]. It was performed to identify the functional groups or possible biomolecules involved in the BCAgNPs synthesis. In FT-IR analysis, crude extract stretches were observed at 3240.7 cm−1, 3017.8 cm−1, 2924.5 cm−1, 2846.8 cm−1, 1701.4 cm−1, 1608 cm−1, 1520 cm−1, 1442.2 cm−1, 1332.8 cm−1, 1203.7 cm−1, 1090.2 cm−1, 1032.9 cm−1 and BCAgNPs peaks were found at 3016 cm−1, 2990.4 cm−1, 2862.3 cm−1, 2846.8 cm−1, 1699.5 cm−1, 1542 cm−1, 1523 cm−1, 1456 cm−1, 1304.8 cm−1, 1054.9 cm−1, 1033.1 cm−1 (Fig. 3). Chen and Mu [24] have reported the similar band pattern for functional groups and finger print regions of poly-phenol. The bands appeared at 3240.7 cm−1 corresponding to OH stretching vibrations and 2924.5 cm−1 for CH stretching of aromatic compound of phenol group. The vibration stretch observed at 1608 cm−1 is because of CC stretch of aromatic group. The peak at 1442.2 cm−1 corresponded to OH bend of poly-phenol, whereas the CO stretching vibrations of IR spectrum observed at 1090.2 cm−1 and 1032.9. In the BCAgNPs, peaks were changed from 3240.7 cm−1–3016 cm−1, 3017.8 cm−1 to 2990.4 cm−1, 1701.4 cm−1 to 1699.5 cm−1, 1332.8 cm−1 to 1304.8 cm−1, 1090.2 cm−1 to 1054.9 cm−1 and bands were not detected below 900 cm−1 to 500 cm−1. The shift in the IR bands suggesting the reaction of silver ions and synthesis of nanoparticles in the extract [25]. FTIR spectra of extract of B. ciliata suggested the presence of different compounds. Variety of phyto-constituents as paashaanolactone, catechin, anthraquinone, steroids, phenolic, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids, flavonoid, tannins and saponins have been reported in methanolic extract of B. ciliata[26]. Shankar et al. [27] have reported the reducing potential of terpenoids for metal ions to form complexes through the oxidation of aldehyde groups to carboxylic acids. This is probably due to the involvement of aromatic compounds such as phenol compounds in the BC extract in capping and stabilizing the BCAgNPs. Plant derived polyphenolic compounds such as tannic acid is reported to have reducing potential towards silver metal for synthesis of nanoparticles [28].